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Sun is the source of all energy that maintains the environment and life in general on Earth.

By harnessing the radiant energy of the Sun, living and nonliving things on Earth create a sustainable ecosystem that keeps us alive.

Since solar panels became mass-produced, we can now harvest solar energy directly in the form of electricity to power our home appliances and reduce our dependency on dirty fossil fuel.

In this article, we will share with you how solar panels are made, and how do solar panels work to generate clean, renewable energy to power homes and businesses.

What are solar panels made of?

Solar panels are made by stringing an array of solar cells together and laminating the solar cell array between the reinforced glass and UV-resistant back sheet.

Solar cells inside WINAICO panels are made of silicon, one of the most abundant materials available on Earth, which is also the key material for semiconductors.

The glass on the front side of the solar module is coated with anti-reflective coating to trap light energy by reducing reflection and strengthened to protect solar cells from mechanical stresses and the weather.

what solar panel is made of
Solar cells are encapsulated between the reinforced glass and UV-resistant back sheet.

The insulating sheet seals the solar panel on the backside to protect the solar cells from moisture damage, and help dissipate heat to keep the solar cells operating at top efficiency.

Finally, WINAICO’s unique frames complete the solar module to reinforce the structural strength of the overall design.

How do solar panels work?

Solar panels work by creating free electrons from atoms when photons, or light particles, hit the solar cells.

As the solar cells are strung together in an array within the solar panel, free electrons are accumulated to generate notable voltage and current.

Then more solar panels are installed on your roof to create a system with big enough system voltage and current to drive your home appliances.

How do solar panels generate electricity to power your home?

When solar cells generate free electrons from light, direct current (DC) electricity flows through the solar panels throughout the array on your roof.

But the home appliances in your home run on alternating current (AC), so an inverter is required to convert DC into AC electricity to power your home.

how solar panels work
Solar panels on the roof are connected to inverters and a net meter before connected to the grid.

Modern inverters on the market can perform more than just inverting DC to AC electricity, but also provide fault detection, monitoring, and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the solar modules, to make sure they convert maximum energy from different levels of light intensity.

What else do you need in a PV system?

While solar panels and an inverter make up the core of a PV system, you may need additional components to complete a perfect installation for your home.

  • Net meter – a net meter helps the power company keep track of the energy flow between your home and the grid. When the home consumption exceeds energy generation, for example in the evening, the net meter rolls normally to track your energy consumption. While your solar installation is generating more electricity than your appliance can consume, the net meter provides you with a credit against the power bill.
  • Battery storage – since the solar modules only generate electricity during sunny days, you may need battery storage to store excess energy for use during rainy and cloudy days. The battery storage becomes most important if you live in a rural area with an off-grid system, to help you completely cut off from the dependency of the power grid.
  • Monitoring system – a good inverter should provide monitoring capabilities to help you track the performance of your solar modules, detect faults, and remind you to wash them to maintain high energy production.
  • Mounting system – a good mounting system can fix solar panels on your roof, keep the cables tidy and protect your roof tiles.
  • Insurance – even the best components money can buy may be knocked out by natural disasters and human error. Having good insurance for your PV system can help protect your system from any improbable catastrophe.

By understanding how solar panels work, you can consider investing in solar to start saving electricity bills.